One of our specialties is installing pond pumps and biological filters for fish ponds and waterfalls. We can install equipment for new or existing water features. We also offer for sale to the consumer and do-it-your-selfer an excellent line of pond pumps, pond filters and ultraviolet clarifying units. (Click the appropriate bar to the left to view our products.)
Oftentimes, pond builders will install the right kind of filter, but one that is too small to handle the "biological load" of the pond, mainly fish waste, algae blooms in the water column, and debris that is blown in from trees and other landscaping.
A very common filtering and circulating system (and I use the term loosely in this case) is a submersible pump with some sort of intake screen or even a filter on the intake, which pumps the pond water to a filter somewhere outside the pond, and then to a waterfall and back into the pond. These set-ups are invariably a royal pain in the rear! They do not cycle the water through the filter often enough during the day, the intake in the submersible pump is constantly clogged, and ususally the filter is easily clogged up and offers too little surface area to propagate enough nitrifying bacteria to keep the pond water clean and clear.To keep this contraption going, the pond owner either has to spend a lot of precious time taking the submersible pump out of the pond to clean it, and taking apart the pond filter to clean it; or paying a pond maintenance company $ 80 to $ 120 monthly (or more) to do all of that for them.
If this sounds like your situation, CALL US! We can save you a lot of time and aggravation so that you can enjoy your pond! We guarantee our work, have numerous references, are a licensed general contractor, and have twelve years experience exclusively in design and construction of fish ponds and waterfalls, and installation of pond filtration systems.
We prefer Aqua Ultraviolet biological pond filters for their performance and ease of use. When installing these filters, we recommend using one size up as far as the rated capacity is concerned if it is too close to the water volume of the pond. For example, on a 2,000 gallon pond we would use an Ultima 4000 instead of an Ultima 2000. Keep in mind that to "step up" like this you must follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the flow rate of your circulating pump, which, using our example, would be a pump that delivers at least 4,000 gallons an hour to the filter. Two speed pumps work well with these filters because the high speed setting of the pump creates enough pressure to backwash the filters properly. Remember to follow the manufacturer's recommendations closely regarding the backwashing procedure.
Water features should be designed for energy efficiency and ease of maintenance. The main components of the water circulation system utilizing a centrifugal pump are: main drain (intakes), pond skimmer, pump and strainer (leaf trap), filter, u.v. sterilizer, return line. If there is only one main pond intake, it should have an anti-vortex cover to protect people, and fish, if any are planned, from the strong pull of water through it. It is better and safer, however, to have at least two main intakes in the bottom of the pond. That way if one becomes blocked or obstructed, water continues to flow through the other one. If the pump is below the waterline, install a gate (ball valve) just before the pump strainer to hold back the pond water while the strainer basket is being emptied and cleaned. The pump strainer catches any debris pulled in through the main intake before it reaches the impeller.
The pump and other equipment can be below water level if desired, creating a condition known as flooded suction. This means that instead of having a high amperage pump to create suction to pull water through the main intake in the pond, your pump will already be flooded with water inside the impeller. This way you can get by with a lower amperage pump, and that means less noise and power consumption.
One design to enable the pond pump to have flooded suction is to have the walls of the pond raised above ground eight or more inches. Another design is building a below ground level (and water level) pump house, but it must be made rain proof and flood proof. As a precaution, install a 3” or 4” drain and line inside leading away from the pump house.
What to do if the pond edge is at ground level, and the pump is above that level, as is often the case? We create an artificial water level in our intake line by installing a swing check valve a few inches below the water level of the pond. Ideally, the valve on a 2” intake line would be a 2 1/2” or 3” “true union” swing check that is installed “downhill” at a 45 degree angle. The body of a true union swing check valve is replaceable without cutting the main intake line. It should be positioned in an access box underground in front of the pump.
To increase system efficiency, cut down on flow resistance (friction loss) when water is flowing through the suction and return lines by using at least 2" pipe, and as short runs of pipe as possible and as few 90 degree fittings as possible. One 90 degree fitting is equal to about 8 feet of the same size pipe in friction loss. One example for reducing friction loss is instead of 90 degree fittings, use two 45 degree fittings, or 90 degree “long sweeps”, which are available in schedule 40 PVC pipe.
The size of pump you use is also contingent on whether or not you have plants and fish. If you don’t, and it is strictly ornamental in nature, size the pump to achieve the effect you want with your waterfall. In this case power usage may not be as much because the system is only running four to six hours a day. The pump will need to run long enough each day to cycle the water through the filter a number of times. When I say cycle I mean the water is completely recirculated one time. Anyway, the only other time you need the pump running is to run your waterfall. The pond pump must run continuously if it is maintaining a fish pond. Either way, you want to use the smallest pump you can to do the job, or at least a high quality, energy efficient pump. When choosing pumps, or any other equipment for that matter, please decide what your requirements are and then obtain the specifications you need from the equipment manufacturer or supplier. Although there are several ways of putting together these systems, they all work on the same basic principal.
The next major component in the water circulation system is the filter. This is another area which is again dependent on whether you have living things in your water feature. If you don’t, then use a cartridge filter. The size of this will depend on the size of the pond, where your equipment is and how well you can hide it all. With natural water features you must hide or disguise your equipment. For water features with plants and fish, (after testing many different filters and methods over twelve years), Aqua Ultraviolet bio-filters are the only ones I install, period. Always install a good quality ball valve in line between the pump and filter. That way you can slow down the flow of water to the filter if necessary to let it work more effectively. The ball valve can also help control excessive splashing out of the boundaries of your waterfall therefore cutting down on water loss.
There are a few more things we need to add to our water circulating “loop” after the filter. One is a check valve, which keeps the water in the return lines from draining out when the pump goes off due to a timer shutoff or if shut off manually. The check valve reduces the work load a little for the pump every time the pump is turned on and is pushing air and water up through the return line, especially on the taller waterfalls.
After the filter and check valve comes the ultraviolet sterilizer. The u.v. sterilizer helps to keep the water clear in "live" ponds; and is optional but recommended even for water features without plants and fish. Depending on what size unit you use, it can greatly reduce or eliminate the need for chemicals such as chlorine or bromine in ornamental ponds. U.V.’s kill free-floating algae spores, parasites, and bacteria harmful to fish and people.
Electrical Circuits for Water Features
While you are working on the different phases of the pond, you should be working with the electrical part of the project, too. This should be done by licensed, qualified personnel only, and with the proper building permit. As far as your power source for your project, an existing exterior receptacle is the easiest, most convenient point of attachment. An interior receptacle will also work: simply drill a hole the size of a threaded pipe adapter out the back of the junction box from the inside of the house, through the exterior wall covering, and attach the conduit to the J-box . Even better is taking the circuit from the main panel box of the house. If you need 220 service for the pump, you must have room in the panel for a new breaker and then create an access to the panel for the new circuit.
When you run a circuit out to the site of the water feature from your power source, whether above or below ground, use 3/4” conduit minimum. Make sure the receptacle for the pump ends up within the reach of the pump’s power cord, but still hidden from view, behind the waterfall or plants. To shield the pump’s power cord from rain or sprinklers, install a waterproof cover by Intermatic. Using 3/4” or 1” conduit, and stranded, 12 or 10 gauge wire makes wire pulling much easier, especially when there are numerous turns in the conduit and long runs to pull through. Pull an extra hot wire or two for future lighting or auxiliary circuits while you’re at it; it will make things easier for you. Underground conduit must be schedule 40 PVC plastic pipe installed to the depth specified for your area in the code (usually 18” minimum). Above ground should be galvanized EMT conduit and fittings or per applicable code. If the pump is running continuously, no timer is required; you may want install a switch only. Otherwise a basic Intermatic mechanical timer is all you need for the simplest and most reliable operation.
The water feature should be properly grounded for maximum safety. In addition to the normal grounding to the main panel via metal conduit or grounding wire inside plastic conduit, a solid copper wire, # 8 minimum must lead from a clamp on the rebar grid in the concrete pond shell to the exterior ground terminal on the pump itself. Check local codes and confer with your building inspector to confirm this point. All of the previous information on the electrical installations is not meant to replace careful study of, and compliance with your local area’s electrical codes. The information is a general guide pertaining to water features only and is not represented by me as being all-inclusive. I disclaim any responsibility for any problems you might have in this regard.